Formal And Informal Educational Organisations

Family is the initial and the basic organisation in the formation of the society. Many scholars of sociology have defined family to be a small social unit consisting of a few members ( such as wife, husband and children). According to the modern definition of family it is such a collective group which lives under the safe roof and belongs to the same society and possesses common interests and cultural values. The different aspects of the family which cause effect on the growth of child are as follows:

  • Educational behaviour/conduct of family
  • Transfer of hereditary characters
  • Character building
  • Training of congregational or collective consciousness
  • Cognizance of social and cultural values

Nowadays, due to modern scientific inventions, means of communication have become very important. Furthermore, due to these new devices means of communication have become very much useful and their utility has been increased very much. They are included in newspapers, magazines , films, radio and television etc. Today all the members of the society are benefited by these means. Some of the reasons as to why they are regarded as important are as follows:

  • Source of increasing knowledge
  • Source of informal education
  • Perseveration of record of important events
  • Complete relaxations from restrictions of rules and regulations
  • Teaching of Qur’an and religious programmes

After acquiring the necessary knowledge about the mother tongue, initial knowledge and about the performance of a few human needs in the family the children are sent to primary schools by the parents with a view to educate them in the initial formal education institutions called nursery, kindergarten and the primary schools. A large number of students in every country get a chance to have the knowledge about the fundamentals of life and their mental and natural capacities are developed and properly grown by these institutions. Primary education generally starts at the age of five years and so it consists of five classes from 1 to 5 in which the children are taught the fundamentals of education. Primary education helps them to build not only their careers in future but in fact makes them to become responsible citizens of the country in future. Although students later study in middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities, primary schools serve as the starting points in the education careers of the children.

After elementary education which means after passing class 8 the Pakistani students get themselves registered as secondary school students with boards of secondary education of their region to appear in the class 9 and 10th are examinations held by the respective boards.

The examinations from class 1 to 8 are held locally or internally by the respective educational institutions of the regions and the examination for 9th and 10 classes are held by the board of secondary education to judge the standard of general education acquired by the students both on internal and external levels. The way of teaching to these students is more or less the same as the method of teaching which was provided to them in their earlier classes. However their examinations are conducted on an external level so they need to study hard to get through in their examinations.

A large number of students in Pakistan discontinue their education after passing matric examination conducted by the board of secondary education and enter the practical life by doing some kind of service or by starting any kind of business. Thus secondary education enjoys a great importance in the life of education students of Pakistan. It therefore becomes the responsibility of these boards of education to conduct the examination to see that the students have acquired a particular standard of education which may have allowed them to become a responsible member of the society. To meet this requirement of standard of general education the secondary schools try to equip the students with knowledge.

Colleges are regarded to be the most important formal education institutions of the country because they provide higher education to the students in Pakistan. Also, the college serves the same purposes. Colleges provide higher education in all the facilities and increase abilities of the students in their respective subjects. Higher education provided by the college is considered to be responsible for providing manpower for the development of sufficiency and prosperity for the nation. In colleges, young adults of the society acquire education according to the personal temperament and interest. A variety of subjects are taught in various faculties so that in their subjects of interest the candidates can build up their abilities. The aims and objects of college education are to help with the civilized, cultural ,well mannered society of exemplary nature and the country. Some important objects of college education are as follows:

  • Creation of high level thinking power
  • Creation of ability of social welfare
  • Guidance for development of special talents
  • Creation of constructive talents and thoughts
  • Creation of sense of patriotism and loyalty to the country/nation

University is the highest stage of higher education. It is that stage of the formal education from which is spring out in the future builders of a civilized nation. They are the gems of society whose intelligence and talents help to build the future of the nation. They are reflecting and conscious people who become the guides and leaders of the nation. The main objectives of university education:

  • Research in the fields of technology and agriculture
  • To compile records of educational research work
  • To establish International coordination in the field of research
  • Inter university transfer of students and lecturers

The time has changed. After independence it was seriously felt that the people should be taught about the dignity of work. Manual labour and technical jobs in no way are disgraceful. Every job is full of respect and the children should be taught without hesitation to become carpenters, mechanics, fitters, electricians, blacksmiths, goldsmiths ,builders etc. Pakistan is an underdeveloped country hence it needs many skilled and unskilled workers in a large number. This is an age of science . Many many scientific inventions have flooded into the world markets hence it has become necessary that we should train many many technicians. Everybody should know one kind of technique or the other to earn his bread. For this purpose in Pakistan a large number of vocational training centres, polytechnics, engineering colleges and engineering universities have been established to teach and train technical personnel so that Pakistan should not lag behind in technical progress. Paying due regard to the special inclinations and technical talents of the students many technical institutions are preparing technicians in the country to fulfill the following objects:

  • To secure economical fitness
  • To provide practical training
  • To provide technical man power
  • Training of handicrafts
  • To train people to become self-sufficient
  • Perfect employment of man power
  • Chances to have new inventions

Qurrait-ul-Ain Qureshi

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